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          為什么注射流感疫苗后還患感冒

                  每年9月份左右注射的流感疫苗只預防流行性感冒即流感,對普通的感冒沒有作用。流感與普通感冒有區別。流行性感冒是由流感病毒引起的急性呼吸道傳染病,病原體分為甲、乙、丙三型病毒,毒力依次減弱。甲型流感病毒易引起世界性打流行;乙型流感病毒常引起局部暴發;丙型流感病毒以散發為主,主要侵襲嬰幼兒。普通感冒是一種急性上呼吸道感染,不具有流行性,由多種病原體所致,一年四季均可發病。它的病原體可以是病毒,也可以是細菌或支原體。流感的潛伏期一般為1~3天,起病急,伴高熱,體溫可達39~40℃,可持續數天,畏寒、頭疼、乏力、全身酸痛等全身癥狀較重,少數患者有鼻出血、食欲不振、惡心、便秘或腹瀉等輕度胃腸道癥狀。流感發病季節在冬春季,具有傳染性和流行性,病死率很高,特別是嬰幼兒和老年人,因此建議這些人群每年都要接種流感疫苗。而普通的感冒即上呼吸道感染起病較緩慢,癥狀較輕,無明顯中毒癥狀,而且一年四季均有發病。
            由于流行性感冒與普通感冒存在差異,流感疫苗只用于流感的預防,因此接種流感疫苗自然不能預防普通感冒。另外,即便接種了流感疫苗也不能永久預防流感的發生,流感病毒表面抗原具有變異性,容易形成新變種。正因為這種不斷地變異,WHO每年都要召開一次年會,根據流行趨勢,推薦流感疫苗株,生產新疫苗,以適應變異的流感毒株。因此,每年需注射新的流感疫苗預防流感。如果流行的流感病毒與疫苗病毒型別不同,仍有可能感染流感。
           

          凤凰彩票

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